The torso foundation is a bodice and skirt combination without a waistline seam. The foundation ends at hip level (HBL). Length is added to or subtracted from the foundation as required by the design. The fit is controlled by sets of double-ended darts. One foundation is developed with mid-shoulder darts, and the other
foundation is developed with side darts. Both are illustrated, starting with the shoulder-dart foundation. The side-dart torso is based on a traced copy of the shoulder-dart foundation. It has many purposes, one of which is marking contour guidelines. The torso is important as a base for
other basic foundations: shirts, blouses, dart less knit tops, dresses and gowns (without waistline seams),jackets, coats, and active wear (bodys uits,leotards, and swimwear).Three versions for developing the back torso are
discussed. One version creates greater length at the center back; the second version creates greater fullness across the back. A compromise is offered as a third version.